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Comparative Studies

The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use its own set of protocols (Internet Protocol Suite or TCP/IP) with the purpose of progressively serving users worldwide. It is a network of many other networks, consisting of millions of private, public, academic and government companies, with local and global reach and which are linked by a wide variety of electronic, wireless and optical network technologies.

Internet - laptop

The Internet brings an extensive range of information resources and services, such as the interrelated hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW), peer-to-peer networks, and electronic mail support infrastructure. (emails). The origins of the internet can be traced back to research commissioned by the US government in the 1960s to build a robust and flawless form of communication over computer networks. While this work, along with projects in the UK and France, led to the creation of important precursor networks, it did not create the internet. There is no consensus on the exact date when the modern internet emerged, but it was sometime in the mid-1980s.

The financing of a new computer infrastructure (called backbone) for the United States by the National Science Foundation in the 1980s, as well as private financing for other similar commercial backbones, led to worldwide participation in the development of new network technologies and from the merging of many different networks. Although the internet has been widely used by academia since the 1980s, the commercialization of the technology in the 1990s resulted in its dissemination and incorporation of the international web into virtually every aspect of modern human life. As of June 2012, more than 2.4 billion people — more than a third of the world’s population — used internet services, about 100 times more than in 1995. Internet use grew rapidly in the West between the 1990s and 1995. 1990s to early 2000s and since the 1990s in the developing world. In 1994, only 3% of American classrooms had the internet, while in 2002 this figure jumped to 92%.

Most traditional media (or media) communications such as telephone, music, film and television are being reshaped or redefined by the Internet, giving rise to new services such as the Voice Internet Protocol (VoIP) and the Internet Protocol (VoIP). of internet television (IPTV). Newspapers, books and other print publications are adapting to web technology or have been redesigned for blogs and feeds. The internet allowed and accelerated the creation of new forms of human interactions through instant messaging, discussion forums and social networks. Online commerce has grown for both large retail stores and small artisans and merchants. Business-to-business and Internet financial services affect supply chains across entire industries. This aggregation of functionalities through a common core (Internet, in this case) has been called technological convergence or, simply, when it is not ambiguous, convergence.

The internet has no centralized governance in any technological application or access and use policies; each constituent network defines its own policies. Only the excess definitions of the two main namespaces on the Internet—the Internet Protocol and Domain Name System address space—are managed by a supporting organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). The technical support and standardization of the core protocols (IPv4 and IPv6) is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants, and anyone can join by contributing their technical expertise. .

Comparative Police Studies in the EU

COMPOSITE – short for “Comparative Police Studies in the EU” – was a research project examining large-scale processes of change in police forces across Europe. New types of crime, open borders, new technologies, changing public expectations and tighter financial resources are directly or indirectly affecting the police forces in most European countries.

Polizei - Police

These new demands require modern police forces that are efficiently managed, flexible and have the means to cooperate with forces in other countries. Many police forces are responding by introducing ambitious change programs aimed at modernizing and streamlining the way policing is conducted. Therefore, the face of European policing is slowly changing.

Some of these change projects achieve their goals, others fail or face serious problems along the way. The amount of time and resources required is often greatly underestimated, which means that many projects are considered failed not only by the police, but also by politicians, the media or the public. Furthermore, large-scale change processes can be perceived as a threat to the organizational identity of the police, leading to resistance from police officers and the public alike. This can lead to a critical decline in engagement, loyalty and effectiveness, and thus a decline in the public’s perception of legitimacy.

Based on 11 interlocking work packages, COMPOSITE tries to find out which factors contribute to the success or failure of these change processes. Our researchers examine organizational structures, organizational identities and cultures, leadership styles and processes in the police force in ten European countries. In the initial phase, work packages aimed to examine the content of current change programs in European policing by analyzing the external challenges facing the police and identifying the internal resources and capabilities that serve to counter such threats. Other work packages explore knowledge sharing and technology trends, and provide insights into the organizational structures that drive change initiatives. The second phase of the research project mainly focuses on change processes and on understanding the role of specific organizational characteristics, national and organizational culture, identity and leadership in managing change.

Compostie was funded over a period of four years from the FP 7 framework program of the European Union. Its consortium consists of 15 partners from ten European countries. It works with police forces in Belgium, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, the Republic of Macedonia, the Netherlands, Romania, Spain and the United Kingdom. The official start of the project was August 1, 2010.